نیمرخ شناختی و زبان شناختی دانش آموزان با اختلال یادگیری ویژه و مشکل یادگیری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری روان‌شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد روان‌شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار روان‌شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی نیمرخ شناختی و زبان شناختی دانش آموزان با اختلال یادگیری ویژه و مشکل یادگیری (کم پیشرفت) انجام شد.در قالب یک پژوهش توصیفی – تحلیلی، از بین تمامی دانش آموزان 12-8 سال مراجعه‌کننده به مراکز اختلال یادگیری و دانش آموزان کم پیشرفت مدارس مقطع ابتدایی شهر تهران با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس (دو گروه 100 نفره) انتخاب و در متغیرهای سن، جنسیت، پایه تحصیلی و هوشبهر همگن شدند. داده‌های پژوهش از طریق ویراست چهارم هوش وکسلر کودکان (2003)، مقیاس درجه‌بندی رفتاری کارکردهای اجرایی (جیوا و همکاران، 2000) و آزمون تحول زبان- 3 (نیوکامر و هامیل، 1999) گردآوری و با استفاده از روش آماری تحلیل واریانس چند متغیری مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفتند.یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که عملکرد دانش آموزان با اختلال یادگیری ویژه در نیمرخ شناختی به‌طور معناداری ضعیف‌تری از دانش آموزان با مشکل یادگیری است، افزون بر این در مهارت‌های زبان‌شناختی نتایج حاکی از آن بود که دانش آموزان با اختلال یادگیری در زیر مقیاس تحلیل واجی نسبت به گروه دانش آموزان با مشکل یادگیری به‌طور معناداری عملکرد ضعیف‌تری نشان دادند. از سوی دیگر، در زیر مقیاس‌های واژگان تصویری، تقلید جمله، تکمیل دستوری، تمایز گذاری کلمه، تولید کلمه، واژگان، شباهت‌ها و درک مطلب تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه گزارش نشد. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از پژوهش حاضر توجه به کارکردهای اجرایی و مهارت‌های زبان‌شناختی در تشخیص، آموزش و توان‌بخشی دانش آموزان با اختلال یادگیری ویژه و مشکل یادگیری می‌تواند نتایج مؤثری در پی داشته باشد.

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