Document Type : Research Paper


1 MA in Counseling, Payame Noor University, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

3 MA in Biostatistics, University of Rehabilitation Sciences and Social Health, Tehran, Iran.



Few studies have investigated how positive psychology can be applied for parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of positive psychological intervention on self-efficacy, resilience and life expectancy mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. The semi-experimental research method was a pre-test-post-test design and follow-up with a control group. A sample of 20 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities were selected in a purposeful way and assigned to two experimental and control groups (10 people each group). The required information was collected through three questionnaires: Sherer General self-efficacy, Hope Schneider et al., and Connor and Davidson's resilience questionnaire. Participants were evaluated before the intervention, then positive psychological intervention was implemented for the experimental group in 6 sessions, and re-evaluated in the post-test and follow-up stage. The data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. The Results showed that positive psychological intervention improved self-efficacy, resilience and life expectancy in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. Therefore, it is suggested to use this intervention to improve self-efficacy, resilience and life expectancy in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities.


Dadashi, A., Sasani, M., and Gul Mohammadnejad, G. (2022). Investigating the effectiveness of teaching positive thinking skills on the life expectancy and self-efficacy of secondary school students in Tabriz. New Ideas in Psychology, 13(17), 1-15.
Eskandari, S., Najafianpour, B., and Nejad Mohammad Namaghi, A. (2019). Effectiveness of Training positive thinking skills on self-esteem and life expectancy of orphan and irresponsible teenagers 12 to 17 years old. Knowledge and research in applied psychology, 20(2 (76)), 24-33.
Ganji, M. (2021). Psychopathology based on DSM-5. Tehran: Savalan Publications.
Hadizadeh Kafash, R., Mardpour, A., and Ramezani, Kh. (2018). Effectiveness of positive-oriented group psychotherapy on quality of life, life expectancy and social adjustment of women heads of households. Journal of Psychological Sciences, 18(73), 109-119.
Heydari, S., Mashkabidhaghighi, M., and Shujaei, A. (2022). The effectiveness of family life education in reducing parental stress of mothers with mentally retarded children. Child Mental Health (Child Psychology), 9(1), 15-31.
Jafarpour, H., Akbari, B., Shakrinia, I., and Asadi Mujareh, S. (2019). Comparison of the Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training and Mindfulness Training on the Reduction Rumination in the Mothers of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability. Child Mental Health (Child Psychology), 7(4), 75-93.
Khodayari Fard, M.; Ghobari Bonab, B. and Akbari Zardkhaneh, S. (2015). Iranian positivity scale (IPTS): Development and Standardization. Applied Psychological Research Quarterly, 5(4), 72-99.
Kivanpur, R. and Gerji, Y. (2022). The effectiveness of positive thinking training on hope and life satisfaction in mothers with disabled children. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals, 47 (12), 151-172.
Nasiri, H., and Jokar, B. (2008). The relationship between life’s meaningfulness, hope, happiness, life satisfaction and depression in a group of employed women. Woman in development and politics (women’s research), 2 (6), 167-175.
Quilliam, S. (2003). Positive thinking and positivism. Translated by Barati, F., and Sadeghi, A. (2015). Tehran: Rushd Publications.
Rashidzadeh, A., Birami, M., Hashemi Nusratabad, T., Mirnasab. (2018). The Effectiveness of Religious-based Gender Justice Training and Compassion-focused Therapy on Psychological Capital of Girls with Delayed Marriage. Women and Family Studies, 12(43), 59-83.
Rezazadeh Moghadam, S., Khodabakhshi Kolayi, A., and Hamidipour, and Thanago, A. (2018). Effectiveness of Positive Psychology on Hope and Resilience in Mothers with Mentally Retarded Children. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing (IJPN), 6(3), 32-37.
Taheri, M., and Pour Mohammadrezai Tajrishi, M., and Soltani Bahram, S. (2011). Relationship between attachment style and life expectancy in mothers of sons with educable intellectually disability. Principles of Mental Health, 14(1 (serial 53)), 24-35.