کاربرد آموزش حل مسئله کلامی مبتنی بر طرحواره در اختلال یادگیری ویژه با آسیب ریاضی: مطالعه مروری نظامند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار روان شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد روان شناسی تربیتی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
هدف پژوهش حاضر معرفی ماهیت، ویژگی‌ها، و شواهد پژوهشی پیرامون موثر بودن آموزش حل مسئله کلامی مبتنی بر طرحواره در ارتباط با نارسایی‌های یادگیری ویژه است. در پژوهش حاضر از طریق پژوهش مروری نظامند و جستجوی کلیدواژه‌های تخصصی مرتبط با اختلال‌ یادگیری ویژه با آسیب ریاضی و آموزش حل مسئله کلامی مبتنی بر طرحواره در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی تخصصی ایران و جهان بین سال‌های 2017-1996 یافته‌ها و اطلاعات مورد نظر جهت دستیابی به هدف پژوهش مورد واکاوی قرار گرفت.
از 36 پژوهش انجام شده، غالب پژوهش‌ها (25 پژوهش) بر روی آزمودنی‌های دارای اختلال ریاضی از سن 5 تا 12 و در پایه 1-6 انجام شده است. بیشتر پژوهش‌های انجام شده از نوع مطالعات آزمایشی می‌باشند( با فراوانی 25 پژوهش). کلاس آموزش فراگیر (با فراوانی 15 پژوهش)، مراکز استثنایی یا توانبخشی اختلال‌های یادگیری (با فراوانی 9 پژوهش)، کلاس مجزا (با فراوانی 8 پژوهش)، و مراکز فعالیت (با فراوانی 4 پژوهش) به ترتیب پرکاربردترین موقعیت‌های کارآموزی هستند که مورد استفاده قرار گرفته‌اند. در شیوه اجرای آموزش مبتنی بر طرحواره، ارائه"آموزش در کل کلاس، و انفرادی" از بیشترین فراوانی برخوردار است (با فراوانی 26 پژوهش). اثربخشی آموزش حل مسئله کلامی مبتنی بر طرحواره بر متغیرهای وابسته"سیالی"(دقت و صحت حل مساله ریاضی)،"اکتساب" و "تعمیم" به ترتیب در 36، 16 و 11 پژوهش مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. نتایج این پژوهش‌ها حکایت از اثربخشی مثبت آموزش مبتنی بر طرحواره بر متغیرهای وابسته دارند.

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