شناسنامه علمی شماره

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی دانشگاه شیراز

2 استادیار بخش آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه ابعاد همدلی در دانش‌آموزان با و بدون کم‌توانی‌ذهنی بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه دانش‌آموزان با و بدون کم‌توان‌ذهنی دوره ابتدایی شهر شیراز در سال تحصیلی 90-89 بود. نمونه پژوهش شامل 733 نفر از دانش‌آموزان 11- 7 ساله (383 پسر و 350 دختر) دوره‌ی ابتدایی شیراز بود که 339 نفر از آنها دارای کم‌توانی‌ذهنی و به صورت نمونه‌ در دسترس و 393 نفر بدون کم‌توانی‌ذهنی و به صورت تصادفی از مدارس ابتدایی شیراز انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش، پرسشنامه‌ همدلی گریفیت[1] (مارک دادز[2] و همکاران، 2008) بود که دارای سه بعد عاطفی، شناختی و کلی می‌باشد و توسط مادران دانش‌آموزان تکمیل شد. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین ابعاد همدلی (عاطفی، شناختی و کلی)، رابطه مثبت و معناداری به شرح زیر وجود داشت: 1) در بعد همدلی عاطفی، بین دانش‌آموزان (با و بدون کم‌توانی‌ذهنی) تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت، اما در همدلی شناختی و همدلی کلی تفاوت بین این دو گروه در سطح 01/0معنادار بود. بدین صورت که دانش‌آموزان بدون کم‌توانی‌ذهنی در متغیرهای یاد شده بهتر از دانش‌آموزان با کم‌توانی‌ذهنی بودند.2) جنسیت در همدلی عاطفی در سطح 01/0 معنادار بود، یعنی دختران همدل‌تر از پسران بودند. در بعد همدلی شناختی چه در اثر اصلی و چه در تعامل بین دو گروه تفاوت معنی‌داری بین دختران و پسران وجود نداشت. سرانجام در همدلی کلی، در اثر اصلی، تفاوت بین دختران و پسران معنادار نبود اما در اثر تعاملی تفاوت در سطح 05/0 معنی‌دار بود. یعنی، دختران بدون کم‌توانی‌ذهنی همدل‌تر از پسران دارای کم‌توانی‌ذهنی بودند



[1]. Griffith Empathy Measure


[2]. Mark, Dadds

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