تحلیل نیمرخ عملکردی حافظه و توجه در کودکان دارای اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی، کودکان با اختلال یادگیری و کودکان با شرایط همبود

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی/ گروه روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی / دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی/ تهران/ایران

2 انشگاه علامه طباطبائی، گروه روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی

3 دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشیار رشته روان سنجی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

10.22054/jpe.2020.44270.2022

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی نیمرخ عملکردی کودکان دارای اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی، کودکان با اختلا‌‌ل یادگیری و کودکان با شرایط همبود اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی و اختلال یادگیری در انواع حافظه و توجه انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش حاضر توصیفی و از نوع پس-رویدادی بود. با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس 30 دانش‌آموز عادی، 30 دانش‌آموز دارای اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی، 30 دانش‌آموز دارای اختلال یادگیری و 30 دانش‌آموز با شرایط همبود پس از شناسایی، ارزیابی و تشخیص؛ در انواع مولفه های حافظه و توجه مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. از روش تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره و آزمون‌ تعقیبی شفه به همراه رسم نیمرخ عملکرد گروه ها به منظور تحلیل داده های گردآوری شده استفاده شد. نتایج حاکی از تفاوت معنادار بین عملکرد کودکان عادی با هر سه گروه کودکان دارای اختلال در همه زیر نوع‌های حافظه و توجه بود (01/0 > p). همچنین ضعیفترین عملکرد در کارکرد حافظه متعلق به گروه همبود و ضعیفترین عملکرد در زیر مقیاس‌های توجه نیز در گروه کودکان با اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش فعالی مشاهده شد. همچنین مقایسه دو به دویی در همه مولفه ها حاکی از وجود تفاوت بین چهار گروه بود. با توجه به این یافته‌ها به نظر می‌رسد که همراه بودن دو اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی و اختلال یادگیری می‌تواند ضعف بیشتر در عملکردهای مبتنی بر حافظه را برای فرد به همراه داشته باشد هرچند این همبودی درزمینهٔ توجه نقش تعدیل‌کننده‌ داشته و می‌تواند منجر به بهبود عملکرد فرد با اختلال همبود در مقایسه با زمانی شود که فرد تنها اختلال نارسایی توجه/بیش‌فعالی را دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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